The title should be research centric and short as possible. It should be 50 words maximum with Arial 14-point.
First alphabet of names should be in capital letters with Arial 9-point. If there is more than one author please mention reference numbers by 1, 2… superscript and put comma between the names.
Johan Michel1, Vignesh S.K.1, A. Kumar1, Alice Beyene2 and Charles Sharma2
Here affiliations are referred to details of authors’ home institutions at the time when their primary contribution to the research was carried out. Author should mention the current affiliations under acknowledgements if differs from home institutions. Text size should be Arial 9-point and presented through reference superscripts in case of additional authors.
1Department of Nursing, Jimma University, Ethiopia
2Department of Botany, M.M.H. PG College, Delhi, India
The e-mail address should be given of the corresponding author with his/her name.
The abstract is brief summary of undertaken research that includes objectives of the research, methodology being used, found results with foremost conclusions. It should be focused with self-explanatory to understand the complete research done. It should be written in complete sentences with Arial 10-point without subheadings.
Abstract The coordination between swallowing and breathing is considered to be an essential element in the protection of the airway during eating/ drinking. A variety of age-related changes occur in the oral pharyngeal mechanism, with some affect on the coordination between swallowing and breathing. Hence the present study was planned to investigate the differences between respiratory swallow coordination if any in the healthy individuals. 800 participants in the age range of 18-40 yrs, 41-59 yrs, 60-75 yrs and 76 yrs and above participated in the study. The swallowing examinations were recorded on a Digital Swallowing Workstation (Model 7200; Kay Elemetrics Corporation) coupled to the swallowing signals lab. Nasal respiratory flow was captured by using a standard 7-ft nasal cannula coupled to the Swallow Signals Lab (Model 7120; Kay Elemetrics Corporation) module. Respiratory measures (inhalation/ exhalation) were recorded for all swallowing attempts. Swallow apnea duration was calculated from these measurements. Obtained data was analyzed statistically using MANOVA. Results revealed an increase in swallow apnea duration with the increase in age. Significant difference was observed between males and females. It was also observed that bolus consistency and volume did influence the swallowing physiology. This normative would serve as a base for comparisons against disordered respiratory swallow coordination in individuals with dysphagia.
Please provide 3 to 6 keywords (indexing terms). Keywords should be given in the alphabetical order and should not repeat the words in the title. Keywords should be typed in italic 10-point Arial.
Keywords Digital Swallowing Workstation, Dysphagia, Oropharynx, Swallow Apnea
Length of Introduction should be around 500 words maximum which include citations. The introduction should be brief preliminary explanation of the research which says about reasons for why the study has been undertaking as well as advantages and general outcome of the study.
Malnutrition contributes to child mortality, poor intellectual and physical development of children, and lowered resistance to diseases, and consequently stifles development. Ethiopia has now the highest prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) manifested in the first years of life (1-3). There are many and complex factors including unfavorable health environment caused by inadequate water and sanitation which increase the probability of infectious diseases and indirectly form certain types of malnutrition (4-7). In addition, cultural beliefs luck of parental education especially that of mothers, are all cited to affect children’s nutritional status (4-9). Ill health and death are highest in this group, largely from preventable causes (10), related to malnutrition. Malnutrition emanates from the poor infant feeding practices in combination with socio-economic underdevelopment results in high infant and child morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia (11-13). Several pocket studies in Ethiopia reported that malnutrition is a common problem (14-18). In Ethiopia, although different studies indicated a decline in the prevalence of child malnutrition (9, 16, 20-22) still the prevalence of malnutrition is the highest compared to other east African countries. However, very little is known about predictors of nutritional status of infants and young children in the study area. The objective of this study is to determine predictors of nutritional status of children visiting health facilities in the study area.
This is an important section of the manuscript which explains about materials and methods being used to perform the research. If any published procedure being used under the study should be properly referred. It also includes the brief description of materials if used with their affiliations. This section can be excluded for manuscripts that include only theory part of the research. It should be written with Arial 10-point.
2. Materials and Methods
Human volunteers were used for this study. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Based on the sample size formula (n = Z21-/2 2 /d2, where is the Standard deviation, d is the precision and 1- /2 is the desired confidence level), eight hundred non dysphagic individuals were recruited for the study. They were divided into four groups depending on their age. Group 1 consisted of 100 males and 100 females in the age range of 18 to 40 yrs. Group 2 consisted of 100 males and 100 females in the age of 41-59 yrs. Group 3 consisted of 100 males and 100 females in the age of 60-75 yrs. Group 4 consisted of 100 males and 100 females in the age of 75 yrs and above. The exclusion criteria considered were history of speech, language, neurological and swallowing disorders.
The study followed the cross sectional control group design. Experiments were performed while each subject was seated on a comfortable chair. All swallowing measurements were conducted using the Kay Digital Swallowing Workstation and Swallowing Signals Laboratory (Model 7120; Kay PENTAX). The Kay Digital Swallowing Workstation with signals laboratory is a computer-integrated system of swallowing measurement facilities including cervical auscultation, surface electromyography (sEMG), nasal airflow monitoring and cervical auscultation. Nasal airflow monitoring was used to measure the apneic duration of swallowing associated with each preparation. Respiratory coordination for swallowing was measured using a nasal catheter positioned at the entrance of nares.
A. Dry Swallow It is defined as a swallow involving no external food or liquid. The data was collected as the participants performed three dry swallows. Each swallow was separated by 30 sec. which was determined by the use of stop watch.
B. Thin Liquid Swallow It is defined as a swallow involving intake of water. Each measured quantity of water was passed on to the participants on a spoon. Three thin liquid swallows were elicited from each participant during the recording session. The time interval separating each swallow was maintained as 30 sec.
C. Thick Liquid Swallow It is defined as a swallow involving the ingestion of water mixed with the commercially available rice flakes. Three thick liquid swallows were elicited from each participant during the recording session. 30 sec time interval separating each swallow was maintained. Three samples were recorded for each volume of boluses. Each participant swallowed the bolus in the following order: dry swallow, 5 ml and 10 ml of thin liquid, followed by 5 ml and 10 ml of thick liquid. The order of presentation of bolus was constant
This section discusses the original experimental findings or any survey findings which should present clear and in concise manner. Appropriate statistical methods should be applied to verify numerical data being collected during experiments or survey. It should be tabulated with brief description. Discussion covers summary of principal findings of the research with facts from published findings or closely related research to check their feasibility. It should be presented in lucid manner; extensive and irrelevant discussion of literature is discouraged. This should not be more than 1500 words including citations.
A) Family: Piperaceae
B) Genus: Piper
Piper nigrum L., Sp. Pl., 29, 1753; Hook. f. in Fl. Brit. Ind., 5: 83, 1985.
Perennial, branching, climbing, stem glabrous and rooting at the nodes. Leaves simple, alternate, cordate, broadly ovate, apex pointed, 5-9 nerved and dark green. Flowers spikes usually deciduous. Fruiting spikes variable in length and robustness, rachies glabrous, fruit drupe, globular, red when ripe, turning black after drying (Figure 1 A).
It is mostly cultivated in the hot and moist climate, in evergreen forests up to 1,500 m in India, Srilanka and other tropical countries and also widely cultivated. The species has probably originated in hills of South Western India, of North Kanara to Kanyakumari and wild in Travancore and Malabar (15).
D) Drug Specification
Fruits rounded, hard, wrinkled, 0.4 to 0.5 cm in diameter and greyish-black to black. The pericarp is thin and encloses a single seed with a hollow centre.
The plant is known by different vernacular names e.g. Golmorich, Kalamorich and Morich (Bengali), Kalimori (Gujarati), Kalimirach (Hindi), Kurumulaku (Malayalam), Kalamiri (Marathi), Milagu (Tamil), Miriyalu and Marichamu (Telugu), Filfil siyah and Kalimirach (Urdu).
F) Cultivation, Collection and Storage Practices
In India pepper is cultivated mostly as a mixed crop in homestead garden. It grows in various parts of India mainly Kerala, Tamilnadu and Karnatak.The veins require trained on to existing trees like jack, mango, coconut bamboo, orange etc. Peppers require warm and humid climate with annual rainfall over 200 cm. Pepper vein can be propagated either vegetatively or by seeds. Vegetative propagation is more adopted because of slow regeneration from seed; although the seeds raised plant remain productive for a long period and yield more in later years. The plant is cropped twice during August-September. and other in March-April. The pepper vein start to fruit 2-3 years later, the fruit is ready for harvest from middle of December to middle March. After the harvesting, the spikes are removed from the vines and dried in the sun. Store protected from moisture and against attack by insect and rodents, polyethylene shall be used for packing.
Micro-chemical tests and behaviour of specific reagents towards plant/drug tissues: Observations and results of micro-chemical tests and behaviour of specific reagent towards plant tissues are presented in Table 1.
Discussion covers summary of principal findings of the research with facts from published findings or closely related research to check their feasibility. It should be presented in lucid manner; extensive and irrelevant discussion of literature is discouraged. This should not be more than 1500 words including citations.
The arterial system of the upper limb has variations which are well documented (4, 5, 6).On the basis of embryologic development of the vascular plexuses of the limb buds, the variations and anomalies of the arterial system to the upper limb can be explained best (7). A model has been proposed which demonstrates the development of the arteries of upper limb in 5 stages (8, 9). This model explains the development of an axial system appears first and other branches develop later from this axial system. Consequently the axillary artery, brachial artery and anterior interosseous artery contains in the axial system of the adult.
The prevalence of wasting in this study is slightly higher according to the classification established by the WHO to indicate the level of child malnutrition which may be related to feeding method used or early and late supplementation of breast milk. Children of those mothers who stopped breast feeding at the time of survey found to be at higher risk of being wasted compared to children of those mothers still breast feeding. Also this study revealed that being underweight among female children was higher when compared with male children which may be related to less attention given to female children.
Acknowledgements include details of research funding sources if applicable and about any technical or intellectual assistance provided through others those have no rights of authorship for this research. It can include presenting the gratitude towards your guide/team mates/at back end support. It should be written in Arial 9-point s and not more than 100 words.
I am highly indebted to research and publication office of Jimma University for financing the project. I would like to extend my thanks to authorities and staff of the six health institutions for allowing me to carry out this project work.
My special thanks go to Professor Teheran Bleached for his constructive comment, support and encouragement during this project work. Also I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to my study subjects and those who helped me in data collection and analysis. Finally I would like to thank W/ro Tizita Godo for secretarial service.
References should be given at the end of the manuscript. Always use the full names of journals. Cite references in their present language, do not try to translate. The reference list should only include works that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications (or any unpublished work) should only be mentioned in the text. Reference could include following publications: Sample:
Author(s). Article title (Italic). Journal’s name (Full name). Publication year. Volume Number (Issue Number) Page range.
Preiksaitis H. G. and Mills C. A. Coordination of Breathing and Swallowing: Effects of Bolus Consistency and Presentation in Normal Adults. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1996. 81 (4) 1707-1714.
Author(s), Publication year: Book Title (Italic). Publisher, Total pages.
Standring S., 2008: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Churchill - Livingstone: Elsevier, 1576.
Author(s), Publication year: Title (Italic). Edition number. Publisher, Total Pages.
Samuel L. Turek, 1994: Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Application. 5th ed.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 708.
Chapter of a Book
Author(s), Publication year: Chapter title. Book Title (Italic). Publisher, Page range.
Samuel L. Turek, 1994: Formation and Development of the Musculoskeletal System. Turek's Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 708.
Citing one volume by title of complete work Author(s), Publication year: Title of Complete Work (Italic). Volume number. Publisher, Total pages
Anonymous, 2008: The Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India Part-I. Vol. 1. Govt. of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, New Delhi, India. 565.
Anonymous, 2001: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Part- I, Volume–III, 1st ed., Govt. of India,Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, New Delhi, India. 605.
Author(s), Publication year: Title (italic). Title of Series, volume number, Publisher, Total Pages.
Author(s), Publication year: Article title. Monograph Title (italic), Monograph Name (abbreviated, italic), monograph number, Publisher, Page range.
Gopaldas T., 1981: Urban Precipitation Processes. METROMEX: A Review and Summary, Meteor. Monogr., No. 40, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75-116.
Author(s), Publication year: Report/Note/Memo Title. Report/Note/Memo Name and number, total pages.
Grütte F.K., 1983: Contemporary Patterns of Breast-feeding. Report on the WHO Collaborative Study on Breast-feeding, 45678, 734.
Author(s), Publication year: Dissertation/thesis Title. Dissertation/thesis, Thesis Department (needed only if M.S. thesis), University, Total pages.
Johan, P., 1959: Care and Child Nutrition. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Nursing, the Delhi State University, 207.
Conference Preprints/Proceedings/Extended Abstracts
Author(s), Publication year: Article title. Preprints,/Proc./Extended Abstracts, Conference Title, volume or report number (if included), city and state/province.
Engle P., 1992: Care and Child Nutrition. Theme Paper for the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN), 5-8, Rome.
Author(s), Publication year: Atlas Title (Italic). Publisher, Total pages.
Bergman R. A. et al., 1988: Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, 607.
Author(s)/Authoring Organization, Year cited (explicitly noted): Document name (Italic). [Address from which available online.]
Satheesh S. and Godwin Wesley S. 2009: Impact of December 26, 2004 Tsunami on the Hydrobiology of Kudankulam Coast, Gulf Of Mannar, India.
Author(s)/Authoring Group, year: Software Edition or Version. Company/Organization that holds the rights to the software.
W3C cited 2012: Semantic Web.
David Brooks, 2012: Thurston Howell Romney. The Opinion Pages, The New York Times, 17 September.
Newspaper Citation (Running Text)
How Different Colours Affect Us (Daily Mirror, Times of India, 19 Sept 2012).
Encyclopedia Britannica, 10th ed., s.v. "Human Genome Project"
Governmental and Legal Documents
US House of Representatives, 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act H.R. 6, 110th Congress
Local Government Act, 2000 Public General Acts—Elizabeth II chapter 22 (The Stationery Office, London)